Uganda is endowed with over 50 different types of minerals and it ranks among the countries in Africa with the biggest number of minerals although the potential for viable exploitation has not yet been established for most of the minerals. The country’s list of minerals resources include; Copper, Cobalt, Tin, Phosphates, Vermiculite, Diamond, Gold, Petroleum, Chronite, Magnetite, Uranium, Iron ore among others.
Minerals in Uganda
Copper is found in areas of Kilembe, where copper-cobalt sulphide mineralization occurs. Other areas with copper include Bobong in Karamoja region and Kampono and Kitaka in Mbarara District
Gold is widely distributed in Uganda but has been worked in only a few areas of a few areas: Buhweju District and Kyamuhunga Bushenyi District, many localities in Kabale, Kisoro and Kanungu Districts, Tira and Amonikakine in Busia district, and more recently in Kamalenge, Mubende District and many localities in Karamoja region.
Iron ore is found at Butare in Kabale district; Kashenyi, Kyanyamuzinda and Kamena in Kisoro district with total resources in excess of 50 million tons which contains negligible sulphur, phosphorus and titanium. Hematite iron ore with a resource of 2 million tons occurs at Mugabuzi in Mbarara district; and also occurs at Nyaituma in Hoima district
These are seen in areas of Southwest Uganda in quartz-mica veins in contact with granitic bodies intruded into shales and sandstone host rocks of Karagwe-Ankole.
Limestone and Marble:
Limestones derived from lime leached from calcareous tufa and from carbonate springs occur around an ancient shoreline of Lake George, Muhokya in Kasese district and Dura in Kamwenge district and true limestone at Hima in Kasese district.
This mineral is got from areas of Kampono, Kanyambogo and Kitaka in Kitomi Forest, Ibanda district and Kikagati.
Mica occurs at Morulem in Abim district; Lunya in Mukono district; Omwodulum in Lira district and Paimol, Parobong, Kacharalum, Agili, Akwanga, Achumo, Kukor, Labwordwong, Namokora, Naam and Okora in Pader district.
Graphite occurs at Zeu in Nebbi district and Matidi and Acholibur in Kitgum district.
Kyanite occurs at Ihunga and Kamirambuzi hills in Rukungiri district and near Murchison falls in Masindi district.
Clay is found in areas of; Kajjansi in Wakiso district; Bugungu near Jinja in Mukono district; Buteraniro in Mbarara district; Butende; Kasukengo in Masaka district; Malawa in Tororo district and Butema in Hoima district.
Feldspar is commonly associated with pegmatites found in the Precambrian Basement. It occurs at Bulema in Kanungu district; Bugangari in Rukungiri district; Mutaka in Bushenyi district; Nyabakweri in Ntungamo district and Lunya in Mukono district.
Found on narrow beaches along the shores of Lake Victoria and some islands contain deposits of glass sand at several locations like Diimu and Bukakata in Masaka district; Lwera in Masaka district, Nalumuli Bay and Nyimu Bay and Kome Island in Mukono district.
Gypsum (selenite) occurs as float and in clay beds with Rift Valley sediments near Kibuku in Bundibugyo Distict, Lake Mburo in Kiruhura District and at Kanyatete in Lake George basin
Apatite is the main commercial ore of phosphate known in Uganda in areas of Sukulu and Bukusu.
Salt includes salt for human and animal consumption as well as various salts for industrial uses. Salt in Uganda is extracted on a small-scale from hot springs at Kibiro in Hoima District and on a larger scale from the floor of crater lakes at Katwe (22 millions of mixed salt) and Kasenyi in Kasese.