The National Land Policy adopted in February 2004 by the Government of Rwanda puts great importance on appropriate land administration system as a key of land tenure security by providing the possibility of registering and transferring land. The land is characterized by high population growth; severe land pressure and an increasing number of small fragmented land plots and the majority of Rwandans hold plots of land under customary arrangements.
The National Land Policy has the following objectives:
- To promote an equal distribution and access to land.
- To guarantee security of land tenure in order to encourage investments in land development.
- To orient land management towards the necessities of profitability and sustainable exploitation.
- To monitor land management systems in order to avoid speculation and abusive exploitation.
- To encourage the participation of the population in the management of land.
Ministry of Lands, Environment, Forestry, Water and Mines
The ministry has authority for land administration and the management of systems for urban and rural land registration and has the responsibility for the whole country with the exception of Kigali City Council which has autonomy on issues of land administration including land registration.
National Land Tenure Reform Programme
Land Tenure Reform Programme covers the improvement of land tenure security and the establishment of new and reform of old institutions governing access to and ownership of land. Land tenure reform addresses tenure security and land administration, land use, management and planning.
It manages the process of land tenure reform, from its design, phasing, implementation, monitoring and eventual evaluation.
The programme was launched in 2005 to coincide with a technical assistance project supported by the UK Government Department for International Development to design a strategic road map for the implementation of land tenure reform.
The mandate for the programme is to provide detailed information for civil servants and officials implementing land tenure reform, for development partners interested in supporting land reform efforts.
Land Ownership in Rwanda.
The Rwanda land ownership is regulated by the Organic Land Law of N° 08/2005 of 14/07/2005. All land in Rwanda belongs to the State, the Districts and the Cities. These Public institutions then lease out the land to individuals or companies for a period of 99 years.