Health Sector

The health sector is undergoing improvements and the key players in the provision of health services are non government organizations including World Health Organization.

Health service delivery in South Sudan is structured along four tiers: primary health care units (PHCUs), primary health care centres(PHCCs), County hospitals and State hospitals / teaching hospitals. At the national level, the Ministry of Health (MoH) seeks to provide overall strategic direction for health care, but also performs some service delivery functions – as well as managing the three teaching hospitals. State MoHs and County health departments are responsible for delivery of secondary and primary health care services respectively. About 70 per cent of functional health facilities are reliant on NGOs for operational support and there are around 800 PHCUs and PHCCs operated by NGOs

Regulatory Framework

Ministry of Health
Through Ministry of Health manages the public healthcare system to ensure that good and affordable basic medical services are available to all people in South Sudan. The strategies for quality health care include providing subsidized medical services while promoting individual responsibility for the costs of healthcare services and encouragement of adoption of a healthy lifestyle that encourages responsibility for one’s own health.

The Ministry of Health performs the following functions and duties:

  • To formulate policies and strategies in the field of preventive, curative and societal medicine within the Government of South Sudan medical policy framework.
  • Development and supervision of clinics, dispensaries, health centres, hospitals and other medical institutions and services in Southern Sudan.
  • Registration of doctors and paramedics as well as maintenance and updating of unified lists of physicians, dentists, pharmacists, medical technicians and specialists working in Southern Sudan.
  • Develop and implement a human resources plan for the health sector, and build capacity of health-care staff, including curriculum development for different health-care workers.
  • Provision of maternity services.
  • Develop the capacity of the Ministry of Health to deliver Health education and promotion.
  • Training of nurses and mid-wives including the management and supervision of medical training colleges and institutes.
  • Plan and implement medical programmes and projects in Southern Sudan in accordance to Government of South Sudan policies and strategies.
  • Supervision and control of use of medicines, drugs, poisons, and anasthetic substances.
  • Establish quality control and assurance mechanisms for drugs and medical consumables.
  • Control of epidemics.
  • Quantifying and provision of medical needs (medicines, equipment, medical materials and supplies) of Southern Sudan.
  • Develop a national health and diseases policy, strategies and plans.
  • Support and supervise a decentralized and delegated system of health provision.
  • Oversee human resources capacity development throughout the health sector.
  • Set priorities, standards, regulations, and guidelines for the operation of health provision at all levels of government.
  • Develop and operate a health information system.
  • Coordinate an effective HIV/AIDS programme.
  • Instigate and coordinate an effective family planning strategy and services.
  • Instigate and coordinate an effective health education strategy.
  • Supervise health inspection services, including food and other public health hazards; and
  • Advise and support States and local governments in their responsibilities for health and build their capacity to assume all functions vested by the Constitution and Government of South Sudan policy.

Health Sector Policy of South Sudan
The Government of the Republic of South Sudan’s Health Policy articulated through its Health Sector Development Plan (HSDP) 2012-16 emphasizes primary health care and the provision of equitable and free, high-quality health services as the cornerstone of health system development.

The Health Sector Development Plan’s objectives are to:

  • Increase the utilization and quality of health services, especially maternal and child health.
  • Scale up health promotion and protection interventions so as to empower communities to take charge of their health; and
  • Strengthen institutional functioning including governance and health system effectiveness, efficiency and equity.

Health Sector in South Sudan have been summarized to include the following

Health Sector Profile


Specialised Facilities

Supporting Infrastructure

Communicable Diseases Control

Investment Opportunities in the Health sector

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The Health Sector of Rwanda

Rwanda’s Health Sector services are provided through the public facilities, government assisted health facilities (GAHFs), private health facilities and traditional healers. The public sector is organized into three levels as follows;

  • The central level based in Kigali is primarily responsible for developing health policy and the overall strategic and technical framework within which health services are provided. The central level is also responsible for monitoring and evaluating operational programs and for managing the national referral facilities.
  • The intermediate level consists of 11 provincial health offices managed under health, gender and social affairs guidelines. The Public Health Department of Kigali City also is in the intermediate level.
  • The peripheral level consists of district health offices. Each district has an administrative office, a district hospital and primary health care facilities (health centers). The district administrative offices are responsible for planning, managing, coordinating and evaluating on a daily basis the activities occurring in the health district.

Each of the above level coordinates with the other levels to prevent overlap and to improve use of resources and services.

Private Sector

  • Private medical sector in Rwanda has grown considerably and continues to grow. There are a number of private physicians and pharmacies throughout the country. The quality of service has greatly improvement as a result of the substantial investment in the sector by both government and private sector.

Regulatory Framework

Ministry of Health

The ministry is responsible for providing and improving the health services of the Rwandan population through the provision of preventive, curative and rehabilitative health care thereby contributing to the reduction of poverty and enhancing the general well-being of the population

Objectives of the ministry

Ministry of Health Rwanda put forward the following seven major objectives that are to be achieved by the year 2015;

  • Human Resources Development
  • Availability of drugs, vaccines & consumables
  • Geographical accessibility of health services
  • Financial accessibility of health services
  • Quality of and demand for health services in the control of diseases
  • Strengthening national referral hospitals, treatment & research centers.
  • Institutional capacity building

Health sector Policy 2004

The Health Sector Policy is the basis of national health planning and the first point of reference for all actors working in the health sector. It sets the health policy objectives, identifies the priority health interventions for meeting these objectives, outlines the role of each level in the health system and provides guidelines for improved planning and evaluation of activities in the health sector

National Health Insurance Policy

The National Health Insurance Policy is based on the principles of Universal Health Insurance and on National Rwandan values which have underpinned the achievements of the current Community Based Health Insurance (CBHIs).

Goal of CBHI

The goal of the CBHI development policy is to provide the population of Rwanda with universal and equitable access to quality health services. CBHI complements other existing social insurance systems such as RAMA and MMI, in addition to private insurance schemes which target workers from the formal and private sector of the economy.

Basic principles of the National Health Insurance Policy are the following:

  • Equity, risk-sharing and solidarity are the guiding principles that support efforts in resource mobilization and risk pooling and promoting access to quality services in the health sector.
  • Ownership, empowerment, participation and partnerships are the guiding principles upon which efforts to ensure the financial and institutional sustainability of the health financing framework will be built.
  • Universality and quality, the affiliation to health insurance is mandatory for each citizen and resident of the Republic of Rwanda.

The information under the Rwanda’s Health sector is organised as follows;

Sector Profile
Specialized Facilities
Communicable Diseases Control
Health Insurance
Rwanda Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) Policy
Facilitation of the Health Sector
Investment opportunities in Health Sector Rwanda

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Mengo Hospital is the oldest hospital in Uganda. It was established by Sir Albert Cook in 1897. At the beginning, the hospital belonged to the Church Missionary Society. In 1958 the hospital was handed over by the Church Missionary Society to an independent and autonomous Board of Governors and Registered Trustees. Ernest Cook, the nephew of Albert Cook, who brought the first X-Ray machine to East Africa in 1907 and installed it at Mengo Hospital. Mulago was founded in 1917 by Albert Ruskin Cook

The Uganda Medical and Dental Practitioners Act:
The law came into existence after the Act 11 of 1996 was enacted. It is the governing law for all medical practitioners in Uganda

The Medical and Dental Practitioners’ Council (UMDPC):
This is the body under which doctor’s dentists and surgeons fall and it is mandated to protect the society through the regulation of medical and dental training. UMDPC is mandated to foster good medical practices, to keep the registers of the qualified Medical officers and Dental Surgeons in the country and to promote high standard of medical education by ensuring that what is taught in Medicine and Dentistry is acceptable internationally. And also to protect the public from malpractices of the medical professionals

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