Rwanda has considerable opportunities for energy development from hydro, methane gas, solar and peat deposits resources. About 14% of the population mainly urban have access to electricity.
The untapped resources for power generation amount to about 1,200 MW. Wood fuel is still the major source of energy since other energy sources have not been developed.
It is estimated more than 99, 5 % of rural households demand on wood fuels their main source of cooking energy. It is estimated that about 82.41 % of the household use firewood and 14.77% use charcoal. In addition 72.6% of the rural households use improved cooking stoves of which is 30.3% use improved mud stoves, 8.5% of households use single metal charcoal stove, 2% use Camamake ivuguruye, and 27.4% still use three stone cooking practices.
The high energy costs are attributed to the country’s dependency on expensive thermal resources, in particular diesel and heavy fuel oils, which account for approximately 40 per cent of the country’s 100MW installed energy capacity. Hydropower accounts for 59 per cent and methane gas 1 per cent.
Rwanda’s Vision 2020 emphasizes the need for economic growth, private investment and economic transformation supported by a reliable and affordable energy supply as
a key factor for the development process. To achieve this transformation, the country will need to increase energy production and diversify into alternative energy sources.
The National Electricity Balance consumption balance is as follows:
Oil products 5%
The National Energy Balance is as follows:
Rental (Thermal) 36%
Imports (hydro) 29%
Rwanda targets to increase access rate to 70 % in 2017,and increase generation capacity to 1000 MW, increase use of cook stoves to 80%, and increase dissemination of domestic bio gas digesters from current 2300 to 9000.