Challenges facing Education sector in Rwanda

  • Limited implementation and monitoring capacity more especially at institutional level.
  • Low completion rates at the primary level (44.5 percent), owing to the high repeater and dropout rates (21 percent and 15 percent, respectively) resulting in low transition rates to the secondary level.
  • Lack of an orientation policy and weak implementation capacity.
  • Insufficient recruitment of teachers combined with the increases in enrolment resulted in a slightly worsening qualified teacher to pupil ratio of 68:1.
  • Inadequate quantitative and qualitative infrastructure and teaching/instructional materials.
  • Limited funding by government in education sector ,in spite of efforts made in recent years to increase budget allocations to the sector
  • Limited qualified staff  i.e. inadequate qualification of teachers in STE because there are few trained teachers to teach science and technology
  • Challenges related to the transition to English as the language of instruction
  • Inadequate compensation the staff in the sector
  • Heavy workload on teachers
  • Education system not well tailored to the labour market needs
  • High cost of education
  • Inadequate provision of special needs education facilities and training for children with disabilities
  • —Difficult conditions of teaching and learning because some schools are located in remote areas.
  • —Lack of  reliable system for measuring learning performance in schools
  • —Low proportion of girls in science and technology streams.
  • —Increase in dropout rates are attributable to the poor quality of infrastructure and to parents’ lack of resources to meet costs related to educating their children.


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